High Prognostic Impact of Flow Cytometric Minimal Residual Disease Detection in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Data From the HOVON/SAKK AML 42A Study

M Terwijn, Wim Putten, A Kelder, Vincent van der Velden, Rik Brooimans, T Pabst, J Maertens, N Boeckx, Georgine Greef, Peter Valk, FWMB Preijers, PC Huijgens, AM Drager, U Schanz, M Jongen-Lavrecic, BJ Biemond, JR Passweg, M van Gelder, P Wijermans, C GrauxM Bargetzi, MC Legdeur, J Kuball, O de Weerdt, Y Chalandon, U Hess, LF Verdonck, Jan willem Gratama, YJM Oussoren, WJ Scholten, J Slomp, AN Snel, MC Vekemans, Bob Löwenberg, GJ Ossenkoppele, GJ Schuurhuis

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Abstract

Purpose Half the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve complete remission (CR), ultimately relapse. Residual treatment-surviving leukemia is considered responsible for the outgrowth of AML. In many retrospective studies, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been shown to enable identification of these poor-outcome patients by showing its independent prognostic impact. Most studies focus on molecular markers or analyze data in retrospect. This study establishes the value of im Patients and Methods In adults (younger than age 60 years) with AML enrolled onto the Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group/Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Acute Myeloid Leukemia 42A study, MRD was evaluated in bone marrow samples in CR (164 after induction cycle 1, 183 after cycle 2, 124 after consolidation therapy). Results After all courses of therapy, low MRD values distinguished patients with relatively favorable outcome from those with high relapse rate and adverse relapse-free and overall survival. In the whole patient group and in the subgroup with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, MRD was an independent prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis after cycle 2, when decisions about consolidation treatment have to be made, confirmed that high MRD values (> 0.1% of WBC) were associated with a higher risk of relapse Conclusion In future treatment studies, risk stratification should be based not only on risk estimation assessed at diagnosis but also on MRD as a therapy-dependent prognostic factor. (C) 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)3889-+
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume31
Issue number31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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