Host-microbe interplay in persistent Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in HIV patients

Damian Melles, E Pauw, L van den Boogaard, Hélène Boelens, JWB (Jeroen) Peters, Justine Peeters, H Witsenboer, Willem Leeuwen, Henri Verbrugh, Alex Belkum, Jan Nouwen

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Abstract

It has been shown that persistent Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage results in increased bacterial dispersal and a higher risk of infection compared to non-or-intermittent S. aureus carriage. Although many studies investigated S. aureus nasal carriage in HIV patients, none compared persistent carriage to non-persistent carriage nor were studies performed in the HAART era. We investigated the host-microbe interplay of persistent S. aureus nasal carriage in HIV-infected patients by studying host determinants of persistent carriage as well as the genetic structure of S. aureus strains isolated. We compared this genetic structure with the previously determined population structure of S. aureus isolates obtained from healthy individuals. Between February 2004 and June 2005 all HIV patients visiting the outpatient department of Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) were asked to participate in this study. Participants were interviewed and screened for persistent S. aureus carriage using two semi-quantitative nasal swab cultures. For 443 patients two cultures were available, 131 (29.6%) were persistent carriers, which is significantly higher as compared to healthy individuals from the same geographic region (17.6%; P < 0.0001). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.73), current smoking (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.97) and antiretroviral therapy (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.98) were independent determinants of persistent carriage. Only two strains were mecA positive (1.2%) and no PVL positive strains were detected. The population structure of S. aureus strains isolated from HIV patients appeared to be strongly overlapping with that of S. aureus isolates from healthy individuals. (C) 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)151-158
Number of pages8
JournalMicrobes and Infection
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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  • EMC MM-04-28-01

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