How young radiologists use contrast media and manage adverse reactions: an international survey

Domenico Albano*, Carmen Mallardi, Saif Afat, Paulo Moraes Agnollitto, Damiano Caruso, Roberto Cannella, Serena Carriero, Kalina Chupetlovska, Paola Clauser, Tommaso D’Angelo, Domenico De Santis, Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Ivo Dumic-Cule, Salvatore Claudio Fanni, Stefano Fusco, Marco Gatti, Salvatore Gitto, Sonja Jankovic, Tsvetomir Karagechev, Michail E. KlontzasEmmanouil Koltsakis, Doris Leithner, Vid Matišić, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Ralitsa Penkova, Michela Polici, Francesca Serpi, Carmelo Sofia, Ziga Snoj, Tugba Akinci D’Antonoli, Federica Vernuccio, João Vieira, Ana Catarina Vieira, Mirjam Wielema, Marta Zerunian, Carmelo Messina

*Corresponding author for this work

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To collect real-world data about the knowledge and self-perception of young radiologists concerning the use of contrast media (CM) and the management of adverse drug reactions (ADR). 


A survey (29 questions) was distributed to residents and board-certified radiologists younger than 40 years to investigate the current international situation in young radiology community regarding CM and ADRs. Descriptive statistics analysis was performed. 


Out of 454 respondents from 48 countries (mean age: 31.7 ± 4 years, range 25–39), 271 (59.7%) were radiology residents and 183 (40.3%) were board-certified radiologists. The majority (349, 76.5%) felt they were adequately informed regarding the use of CM. However, only 141 (31.1%) received specific training on the use of CM and 82 (18.1%) about management ADR during their residency. Although 266 (58.6%) knew safety protocols for handling ADR, 69.6% (316) lacked confidence in their ability to manage CM-induced ADRs and 95.8% (435) expressed a desire to enhance their understanding of CM use and handling of CM-induced ADRs. Nearly 300 respondents (297; 65.4%) were aware of the benefits of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, but 249 (54.8%) of participants did not perform it. The preferred CM injection strategy in CT parenchymal examination and CT angiography examination was based on patient’s lean body weight in 318 (70.0%) and 160 (35.2%), a predeterminate fixed amount in 79 (17.4%) and 116 (25.6%), iodine delivery rate in 26 (5.7%) and 122 (26.9%), and scan time in 31 (6.8%) and 56 (12.3%), respectively. 


Training in CM use and management ADR should be implemented in the training of radiology residents. 

Critical relevance statement: 

We highlight the need for improvement in the education of young radiologists regarding contrast media; more attention from residency programs and scientific societies should be focused on training about contrast media use and the management of adverse drug reactions. 

Original languageEnglish
Article number92
JournalInsights into Imaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2024

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© The Author(s) 2024.


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