Hydroxyl Ethyl Starch (HES) Preserves Intrarenal Microcirculatory Perfusion Shown by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (Ceus), and Renal Function in a Severe Hemodilution Model in Pigs

Bülent Ergin*, Tom Van Rooij, Alexandre Lima, Yasin Ince, Patricia A.C. Specht, Egbert G. Mik, Klazina Kooiman, Nico De Jong, Can Ince

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is associated with low oxygen carrying capacity of blood and purposed to cause renal injury in perioperative setting. It is best accomplished in a perioperative setting by a colloid such as hydroxyl ethyl starch (HES) due its capacity to fill the vascular compartment and maintain colloidal pressure. However, alterations of intra renal microvascular perfusion, flow and its effects on renal function and damage during ANH has not been sufficiently clarified. Based on the extensive use of HES in the perioperative setting we tested the hypothesis that the use of HES during ANH is able to perfuse the kidney microcirculation adequately without causing renal dysfunction and injury in pigs. Hemodilution (n = 8) was performed by stepwise replacing blood with HES to hematocrit (Hct) levels of 20% (T1), 15% (T2), and 10% (T3). Seven control animals were investigated. Systemic and renal hemodynamics were monitored. Renal microcirculatory perfusion was visualized and quantified using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). In addition, sublingual microcirculation was measured by handheld vital microscopy (HVM). Intrarenal mean transit time of ultrasound contrast agent (IRMTT-CEUS) was reduced in the renal cortex at Hct 10% in comparison to control at T3 (1.4 ± 0.6 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 seconds, respectively, P < 0.05). Although renal function was preserved, the serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels was higher at Hct 10% (0.033 ± 0.004 pg/μg protein) in comparison to control at T3 (0.021 ± 0.002 pg/μg protein. A mild correlation between CO and IRMTT (renal RBC velocity) (r -0.53; P = 0.001) and CO and NGAL levels (r 0.66; P = 0.001) was also found. Our results show that HES induced ANH is associated with a preserved intra renal blood volume, perfusion, and function in the clinical range of Hct (<15%). However, at severely low Hct (10%) ANH was associated with renal injury as indicated by increased NGAL levels. Changes in renal microcirculatory flow (CEUS and LSI) followed those seen in the sublingual microcirculation measured with HVM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-466
Number of pages10
JournalShock
Volume57
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financially supported by an Innovation Grand of the Dutch Kidney Foundation (14 OI 11) and NanoNextNL, a micro- and nanotechnology consortium of the Government of the Netherlands.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

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