Hypertensive primary intraventricular hemorrhage: a systematic review

Luis A. Robles*, Victor Volovici

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlePopular


Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a special subtype of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) without a hemorrhagic parenchymal component. Different conditions may cause this uncommon hemorrhage including trauma, vascular anomalies, coagulation disorders, and others. Frequently, PIVH is associated with structural vascular anomalies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and dural fistulas. Traditionally, hypertension has been considered a predisposing factor for PIVH. A wide variety of studies have been published describing patients with PIVH; however, studies describing exclusively patients with hypertensive PIVH are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the features of PIVH secondary to hypertension are not well described. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the characteristics of hypertensive PIVH. A PubMed and Scopus search adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed to include studies reporting patients with hypertensive PIVH. The search yielded 19 articles reporting retrospective case series. The diagnosis of hypertensive PIVH should be established in patients meeting the following criteria: (a) elevation of blood pressure is observed at admission, (b) a cerebral angiography is negative for vascular anomalies, and (c) other causes of intracranial hemorrhage are ruled out. The prognosis is poorer in patients who present with low Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), old age, hydrocephalus, or more extensive intraventricular bleeding. The results of this study show that hypertension is the most common cause of PIVH, followed by hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies. Hypertension may be a direct cause of PIVH, but also it may be a predisposing factor for bleeding in cases of an associated vascular anomaly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2013-2026
Number of pages14
JournalNeurosurgical Review
Issue number3
Early online date20 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


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