A recent study showed cardioprotective effects of resveratrol on the diabetic heart. The present study sought to compare the protein profiles of the normal versus diabetic hearts after resveratrol treatment using differential proteomic analysis. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and diabetic. Both groups of rats were fed resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, and then the rats were sacrificed, hearts were isolated and cytoplasmic fraction from left ventricular tissue was collected to carry out proteomic profiling as well as immunoblotting. Compared to normal hearts, diabetic hearts show increased myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis upon ex vivo global ischaemia of 30 min. followed by 2 hrs of reperfusion. Resveratrol reduced infarct size and apoptotic cell death for both the groups, but the extent of infarct size and apoptosis remained higher for the diabetic group compared to the normal group. The left ventricular cytoplasmic proteins were analysed by 2D-DIGE and differentially displayed bands were further analysed by nano Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The results showed differential regulation of normal versus diabetic hearts treated with resveratrol of many proteins related to energy metabolism of which several were identified as mitochondrial proteins. Of particular interest is the increased expression of several chaperone proteins and oxidative stress and redox proteins in the diabetic group including Hsc70, HSP beta 6, GRP75, peroxiredoxin (Prdx)-1 and Prdx-3 whose expression was reversed by resveratrol. Western blot analysis was performed to validate the up- or down-regulation of these stress proteins. The results indicate the differential regulation by resveratrol of stress proteins in diabetic versus normal hearts, which may explain in part the beneficial effects of resveratrol in diabetic induced cardiovascular complications.