Identification of ultra-rare genetic variants in pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) by exome and whole genome sequencing

Rosario Trifiletti, Herbert M. Lachman*, Olivia Manusama, Deyou Zheng, Alberto Spalice, Pietro Chiurazzi, Allan Schornagel, Andreea M. Serban, Rogier van Wijck, Janet L. Cunningham, Sigrid Swagemakers, Peter J. van der Spek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Abrupt onset of severe neuropsychiatric symptoms including obsessive–compulsive disorder, tics, anxiety, mood swings, irritability, and restricted eating is described in children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). Symptom onset is often temporally associated with infections, suggesting an underlying autoimmune/autoinflammatory etiology, although direct evidence is often lacking. The pathological mechanisms are likely heterogeneous, but we hypothesize convergence on one or more biological pathways. Consequently, we conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) on a U.S. cohort of 386 cases, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) on ten cases from the European Union who were selected because of severe PANS. We focused on identifying potentially deleterious genetic variants that were de novo or ultra-rare (MAF) < 0.001. Candidate mutations were found in 11 genes (PPM1D, SGCE, PLCG2, NLRC4, CACNA1B, SHANK3, CHK2, GRIN2A, RAG1, GABRG2, and SYNGAP1) in 21 cases, which included two or more unrelated subjects with ultra-rare variants in four genes. These genes converge into two broad functional categories. One regulates peripheral immune responses and microglia (PPM1D, CHK2, NLRC4, RAG1, PLCG2). The other is expressed primarily at neuronal synapses (SHANK3, SYNGAP1, GRIN2A, GABRG2, CACNA1B, SGCE). Mutations in these neuronal genes are also described in autism spectrum disorder and myoclonus-dystonia. In fact, 12/21 cases developed PANS superimposed on a preexisting neurodevelopmental disorder. Genes in both categories are also highly expressed in the enteric nervous system and the choroid plexus. Thus, genetic variation in PANS candidate genes may function by disrupting peripheral and central immune functions, neurotransmission, and/or the blood-CSF/brain barriers following stressors such as infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11106
JournalScientific Reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding
This article was funded by National Institutes of Health (P30 HD071593), Janice C. Blanchard Family Fund, Gullstrand Fellow (EU 2020), immunAID grant, 7792950, MOODSTRATIFICATION (7547540), KWF, NWO/ZonMW, BDVA H2020 Bigmedilytics program on Personalized Medicine.

Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).

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