Identifying indicators to guide adaptive scaffolding in games

Tjitske J.E. Faber*, Mary E.W. Dankbaar, Rob Kickert, Walter W. van den Broek, Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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In game-based learning, adaptive scaffolding can enhance the learning of domain-specific skills, known as first-order scaffolding, and self-regulatory skills, known as second-order scaffolding. To design adaptive scaffolding, we need indicators that identify learning opportunities. Therefore we investigated how indicators of performance and self-regulation relate to overall game performance in a medical emergency simulation game. These indicators have the potential to guide the design of adaptive first-order and second-order scaffolding, respectively. Twenty-six fourth-year medical students played 116 game sessions. Using a multilevel model, we investigated the relationship between overall game performance and a range of online and offline measures. For first-order scaffolding, accuracy, systematicity and thoroughness were found to be valid indicators; for second-order scaffolding, high global self-regulatory scores and frequent monitoring were found to be valid indicators. These indicators can be included in future algorithms for adaptive scaffolding in game-based learning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101666
JournalLearning and Instruction
Early online date23 Sep 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) [project number 055.16.117 ]. The authors thank Jeroen Donkers, Ph.D., for his assistance with the statistical analysis and Tin de Zeeuw, P.D.Eng., for the development of software to process the raw game log data. We wish to acknowledge IJsfontein, game design company in Amsterdam, the Netherlands for enabling the collection of log data. We gratefully acknowledge the help of David Barick in proofreading the manuscript. We wish to thank our student assistants: Naïla Wouters and Albina Musaj for data collection and transcriptions, and Eris van Twist and Erik Vissers for transcriptions. Finally, we wish to extend our appreciation and gratitude to all the students who participated in this study.

Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Authors


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