IgA nephropathy

Eleni Stamellou, Claudia Seikrit, Sydney C.W. Tang, Peter Boor, Vladimir Tesař, Jürgen Floege, Jonathan Barratt, Rafael Kramann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most prevalent primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, carries a considerable lifetime risk of kidney failure. Clinical manifestations of IgAN vary from asymptomatic with microscopic or intermittent macroscopic haematuria and stable kidney function to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. IgAN has been proposed to develop through a ‘four-hit’ process, commencing with overproduction and increased systemic presence of poorly O-glycosylated galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1), followed by recognition of Gd-IgA1 by antiglycan autoantibodies, aggregation of Gd-IgA1 and formation of polymeric IgA1 immune complexes and, lastly, deposition of these immune complexes in the glomerular mesangium, leading to kidney inflammation and scarring. IgAN can only be diagnosed by kidney biopsy. Extensive, optimized supportive care is the mainstay of therapy for patients with IgAN. For those at high risk of disease progression, the 2021 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline suggests considering a 6-month course of systemic corticosteroid therapy; however, the efficacy of systemic steroid treatment is under debate and serious adverse effects are common. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of IgAN have led to clinical trials of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles, including SGLT2 inhibitors, endothelin receptor blockers, targeted-release budesonide, B cell proliferation and differentiation inhibitors, as well as blockade of complement components.

Original languageEnglish
Article number67
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2023

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