Imaging of Acute Complications of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Paediatric Population—From Chest Radiography to MRI

Efthymia Alexopoulou, Spyridon Prountzos*, Maria Raissaki, Argyro Mazioti, Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Franz Wolfgang Hirsch, Jovan Lovrenski, Pierluigi Ciet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The most common acute infection and leading cause of death in children worldwide is pneumonia. Clinical and laboratory tests essentially diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or atypical microorganisms. Imaging is usually reserved for children who do not respond to treatment, need hospitalisation, or have hospital-acquired pneumonia. This review discusses the imaging findings for acute CAP complications and the diagnostic role of each imaging modality. Pleural effusion, empyema, necrotizing pneumonia, abscess, pneumatocele, pleural fistulas, and paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) are acute CAP complications. When evaluating complicated CAP patients, chest radiography, lung ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used, with each having their own pros and cons. Imaging is usually not needed for CAP diagnosis, but it is essential for complicated cases and follow-ups. Lung ultrasound can supplement chest radiography (CR), which starts the diagnostic algorithm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is used for complex cases. Advances in MRI protocols make it a viable alternative for diagnosing CAP and its complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122
JournalChildren
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2024 by the authors.

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Imaging of Acute Complications of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Paediatric Population—From Chest Radiography to MRI'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this