Imaging Scheme for 3-D High-Frame-Rate Intracardiac Echography: A Simulation Study

Mehdi Soozande, Boudewine W. Ossenkoppele, Yannick Hopf, Michiel A.P. Pertijs, Martin D. Verweij, Nico De Jong, Hendrik J. Vos, Johan G. Bosch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is normally treated by RF ablation. Intracardiac echography (ICE) is widely employed during RF ablation procedures to guide the electrophysiologist in navigating the ablation catheter, although only 2-D probes are currently clinically used. A 3-D ICE catheter would not only improve visualization of the atrium and ablation catheter, but it might also provide the 3-D mapping of the electromechanical wave (EW) propagation pattern, which represents the mechanical response of cardiac tissue to electrical activity. The detection of this EW needs 3-D high-frame-rate imaging, which is generally only realizable in tradeoff with channel count and image quality. In this simulation-based study, we propose a high volume rate imaging scheme for a 3-D ICE probe design that employs 1-D micro-beamforming in the elevation direction. Such a probe can achieve a high frame rate while reducing the channel count sufficiently for realization in a 10-Fr catheter. To suppress the grating-lobe (GL) artifacts associated with micro-beamforming in the elevation direction, a limited number of fan-shaped beams with a wide azimuthal and narrow elevational opening angle are sequentially steered to insonify slices of the region of interest. An angular weighted averaging of reconstructed subvolumes further reduces the GL artifacts. We optimize the transmit beam divergence and central frequency based on the required image quality for EW imaging (EWI). Numerical simulation results show that a set of seven fan-shaped transmission beams can provide a frame rate of 1000 Hz and a sufficient spatial resolution to visualize the EW propagation on a large 3-D surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2862-2874
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

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