IMI 2021 yearly digest

Monica Jong*, Jost B. Jonas, James S. Wolffsohn, David A. Berntsen, Pauline Cho, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Daniel I. Flitcroft, Kate L. Gifford, Annechien E.G. Haarman, Machelle T. Pardue, Kathryn Richdale, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Milly S. Tedja, Christine F. Wildsoet, Joan E. Bailey-Wilson, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Christopher J. Hammond, Jaakko Kaprio, Stuart MacGregor, David A. MackeyAnthony M. Musolf, Caroline C.W. Klaver, Virginie J.M. Verhoeven, Veronique Vitart, Earl L. Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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PURPOSE. The International Myopia Institute (IMI) Yearly Digest highlights new research considered to be of importance since the publication of the first series of IMI white papers. METHODS. A literature search was conducted for articles on myopia between 2019 and mid-2020 to inform definitions and classifications, experimental models, genetics, interventions, clinical trials, and clinical management. Conference abstracts from key meetings in the same period were also considered. RESULTS. One thousand articles on myopia have been published between 2019 and mid-2020. Key advances include the use of the definition of premyopia in studies currently under way to test interventions in myopia, new definitions in the field of pathologic myopia, the role of new pharmacologic treatments in experimental models such as intraocular pressure-lowering latanoprost, a large meta-analysis of refractive error identifying 336 new genetic loci, new clinical interventions such as the defocus incorporated multisegment spectacles and combination therapy with low-dose atropine and orthokeratology (OK), normative standards in refractive error, the ethical dilemma of a placebo control group when myopia control treatments are established, reporting the physical metric of myopia reduction versus a percentage reduction, comparison of the risk of pediatric OK wear with risk of vision impairment in myopia, the justification of preventing myopic and axial length increase versus quality of life, and future vision loss. CONCLUSIONS. Large amounts of research in myopia have been published since the IMI 2019 white papers were released. The yearly digest serves to highlight the latest research and advances in myopia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Supported by the International Myopia Institute. The publication costs of the International Myopia Institute reports were supported by donations from the Brien Holden Vision Institute, Carl Zeiss Vision, CooperVision, Essilor, and Alcon.
IMI Digest 2021—Experimental Models of Emmetropization and Myopia. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R01 EY-03611 (ELS), F31 HD-097918 (DCT), T32 ES-012870 (DCT), and R01 EY-016435 (MTP); Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation R&D Service Senior Research Career Scientist Award IK6 RX-003134 (MTP); and funds from the Brien Holden Vision Institute and the UH Foundation.
IMI Digest 2021—Genetics. JEBW and AMM were supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and CREAM consortium.
SM was supported by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Grants 1150144 and 1116360. VV was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); Grant 91617076. CCWK was supported by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); Grant 91815655 and European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme Grant 648268.

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