Cholangiocytes express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is involved in bicarbonate secretion for the protection against bile toxicity. During liver transplantation, prolonged hypoxia of the graft is associated with cholangiocyte loss and biliary complications. Hypoxia is known to diminish CFTR activity in the intestine, but whether it affects CFTR activity in cholangiocytes remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hypoxia on CFTR activity in intrahepatic cholangiocyte organoids (ICOs) and test drug interventions to restore bicarbonate secretion. Fifteen different human ICOs were cultured as monolayers and ion channel [CFTR and anoctamin-1 (ANO1)] activity was determined using an Ussing chamber assay with or without AMP kinase (AMPK) inhibitor under hypoxic and oxygenated conditions. Bile toxicity was tested by apical exposure of cells to fresh human bile. Overall gene expression analysis showed a high similarity between ICOs and primary cholangiocytes. Under oxygenated conditions, both CFTR and ANO1 channels were responsible for forskolin and uridine- 50-triphosphate (UTP) UTP-activated anion secretion. Forskolin stimulation in the absence of intracellular chloride showed ion transport, indicating that bicarbonate could be secreted by CFTR. During hypoxia, CFTR activity significantly decreased (P = 0.01). Switching from oxygen to hypoxia during CFTR measurements reduced CFTR activity (P = 0.03). Consequently, cell death increased when ICO monolayers were exposed to bile during hypoxia compared with oxygen (P = 0.04). Importantly, addition of AMPK inhibitor restored CFTR-mediated anion secretion during hypoxia. ICOs provide an excellent model to study cholangiocyte anion channels and drug-related interventions. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia affects cholangiocyte ion secretion, leaving cholangiocytes vulnerable to bile toxicity. The mechanistic insights from this model maybe relevant for hypoxia-related biliary injury during liver transplantation.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was partially funded by the MLDS-Diagnostiek Grant D16-26 of the Dutch Gastroenterology and Hepatology Fund (MLDS).
© 2021 the American Physiological Society.