Implementation of three knowledge-oriented instructional strategies to teach clinical reasoning: Self-explanation, a concept mapping exercise, and deliberate reflection: AMEE Guide No. 150

Dario Torre*, Martine Chamberland, Silvia Mamede

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The teaching of clinical reasoning is essential in medical education. This guide has been written to provide educators with practical advice on the design, development, and implementation of three knowledge-oriented instructional strategies for the teaching of clinical reasoning to medical students: Self-explanation (SE), a Clinical Reasoning Mapping Exercise (CREsME), and Deliberate Reflection (DR). We first synthesize the theoretical tenets that support the use of these strategies, including knowledge organization, and development of illness scripts. We then provide a detailed description of the key components of each strategy, emphasizing the practical applications of each one by sharing specific examples. We also explore the potential for a combined application of these strategies in a longitudinal and developmental approach to teaching clinical reasoning at the undergraduate level. Finally, we discuss enablers and barriers in the implementation and integration of these teaching strategies while taking into consideration curricular needs, context, and resources. We are aware that many strategies exist and are not arguing that SE, CReSME, and DR are the most effective ones or the only ones to be adopted. Nevertheless, we selected these strategies because of overarching theoretical principles, empirical evidence supporting their use, and our own experience with them. We are hoping to provide practical advice on the implementation of these strategies to practicing educators who aim at developing an integrated approach to the teaching of clinical reasoning to medical students at different stages of their development.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Teacher
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Aug 2022

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