Improved Outcome for ALL by Prolonging Therapy for IKZF1 Deletion and Decreasing Therapy for Other Risk Groups

Rob Pieters, Hester de Groot-Kruseman, Marta Fiocco, Femke Verwer, Merian Van Overveld, Edwin Sonneveld, Vincent van der Velden, H. Berna Beverloo, Marc Bierings, Natasja Dors, Valérie de Haas, Peter Hoogerbrugge, Inge Van der Sluis, Wim Tissing, Margreet Veening, Judith Boer, Monique Den Boer

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The ALL10 protocol improved outcomes for children with ALL by stratifying and adapting therapy into three minimal residual disease-defined risk groups: standard risk, medium risk (MR), and high risk. IKZF1-deleted (IKZF1del) ALL in the largest MR group still showed poor outcome, in line with protocols worldwide, accounting for a high number of overall relapses. ALL10 showed high toxicity in Down syndrome (DS) and excellent outcome in ETV6::RUNX1 ALL. Poor prednisone responders (PPRs) were treated as high risk in ALL10. In ALL11, we prolonged therapy for IKZF1del from 2 to 3 years. We reduced therapy for DS by omitting anthracyclines completely, for ETV6::RUNX1 in intensification, and for PPR by treatment as MR. 


Eight hundred nineteen patients with ALL (age, 1-18 years) were enrolled on ALL11 and stratified as in ALL10. Results were compared with those in ALL10. 


The five-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), cumulative risk of relapse (CIR), and death in complete remission on ALL11 were 94.2% (SE, 0.9%), 89.0% (1.2), 8.2% (1.1), and 2.3% (0.6), respectively. Prolonged maintenance for IKZF1del MR improved 5-year CIR by 2.2-fold (10.8% v 23.4%; P = .035) and EFS (87.1% v 72.3%; P = .019). Landmark analysis at 2 years from diagnosis showed a 2.9-fold reduction of CIR (25.6%-8.8%; P = .008) and EFS improvement (74.4%-91.2%; P = .007). Reduced therapy did not abrogate 5-year outcome for ETV6::RUNX1 (EFS, 98.3%; OS, 99.4%), DS (EFS, 87.0%; OS, 87.0%), and PPR (EFS, 81.1%; OS, 94.9%). 


Children with IKZF1del ALL seem to benefit from prolonged maintenance therapy. Chemotherapy was successfully reduced for patients with ETV6::RUNX1, DS, and PPR ALL. It has to be noted that these results were obtained in a nonrandomized study using a historical control group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4130-4142
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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