Purpose: Detailed blood flow studies may contribute to improvements in carotid artery stenting. High-frame-rate contrast-enhanced ultrasound followed by particle image velocimetry (PIV), also called echoPIV, is a technique to study blood flow patterns in detail. The performance of echoPIV in presence of a stent has not yet been studied extensively. We compared the performance of echoPIV in stented and nonstented regions in an in vitro flow setup. Approach: A carotid artery stent was deployed in a vessel-mimicking phantom. High-frame-rate contrast-enhanced ultrasound images were acquired with various settings. Signal intensities of the contrast agent, velocity values, and flow profiles were calculated. Results: The results showed decreased signal intensities and correlation coefficients inside the stent, however, PIV analysis in the stent still resulted in plausible flow vectors. Conclusions: Velocity values and laminar flow profiles can be measured in vitro in stented arteries using echoPIV.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was financially supported by the Stichting TWIN (Foundation TWIN). The authors state no conflict of interest and have nothing to disclose. The authors would like to thank Bracco Suisse SA for providing BR14 microbubbles. Thanks to Henny Kuipers for his contributions to the design and fabrication of the flow setup, BMPI group for the use of their ultrasound equipment, and thanks to the ultrasound experts of Erasmus MC Thoraxcenter for the detailed technical help and feedback.
© The Authors.
- EMC COEUR-09