In vivo fluorescence kinetics and localisation of aluminium phthalocyanine disulphonate in an autologous tumour model

M. J.H. Witjes*, O. C. Speelman, P. G.J. Nikkels, C. A.A.M. Nooren, J. M. Nauta, B. Van Der Holt, H. L.L.M. Van Leengoed, W. M. Star, J. L.N. Roodenburg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sulphonated phthalocyanines are studied as photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy of cancer. Their strong fluorescence and tumour-localising properties make them also potentially useful for detection of cancer by fluorescence. For this purpose, we have studied the fluorescence kinetics and localisation of aluminium phthalocyanine disulphonate (AlPcS2) in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced dysplasia and invasive cancer of the oral mucosa of the hard palate in Wistar albino rats. Twenty-two rats were divided into six groups. Five groups were subjected to a 4NQO application period of 8, 12, 16, 20 or 26 weeks and one was a control group. The dysplasia varied from slight to severe and was correlated with the duration of the application period. All animals received a dose of 1 μmol kg-1 AlPcS2 i.v. Fluorescence images were recorded via a specially designed 'palatoscope' with excitation at 460 ± 20 nm for autofluorescence, 610 ± 15 nm for AlPcS2 fluorescence and detection of emission at 675 ± 15 nm. After subtraction of the two images the specific AlPcS2 fluorescence remained. AlPcS2-mediated fluorescence increased significantly when the severity of dysplasia increased (P < 0.04). Also the phenomenon of strong fluorescent spots on the fluorescence images was observed. This always occurred within the first 10 h after injection of AlPcS2. Histological analysis showed a local alteration to the mucosa in 67% of these spots, which was either invasive cancer (29%) or inflammation (38%). These results suggest two different mechanisms of AlPcS2 uptake in tissue, one associated with the presence of generalised dysplasia and another associated with local changes of the epithelial/connective tissue, which is not necessarily specific for tumours.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-580
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Volume73
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 1996

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