Inactivation of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus with PAXgene Tissue Fixative and Formalin

Marcel Kap, Georgina Aron, M Loibner, A Hausleitner, G Siaulyte, K Zatloukal, JL Murk, Peter Riegman

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Formalin fixation is known to inactivate most viruses in a vaccine production context, but nothing is published about virus activity in tissues treated with alternative, non-crosslinking fixatives. We used a model assay based on cell culture to test formalin and PAXgene Tissue fixative for their virus-inactivating abilities. MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells were infected with Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus, respectively. When 75% of the cells showed a cytopathic effect (CPE), the cells were harvested and incubated for 15min, or 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours, with PBS (positive control), 4% formalin, or PAXgene Tissue Fix. The cells were disrupted and the released virus was used to infect fresh MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells cultured on cover slips in 24-well plates. The viral cultures were monitored for CPE and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) to record viral replication and infectivity. Inactivation of Adenovirus by formalin occurred after 3h, while Influenza A virus as well as Cytomegalovirus were inactivated by formalin after 15min. All three virus strains were inactivated by PAXgene Tissue fixative after 15min. We conclude that PAXgene Tissue fixative is at least as effective as formalin in inactivating infectivity of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)229-234
Number of pages6
JournalBiopreservation and Biobanking
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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