Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well known complication following cardiovascular procedures. The objective was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic significance of AKI after infrarenal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and complex EVAR (cEVAR; fenestrated or branched EVAR). Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing elective infrarenal EVAR or cEVAR between 2000 and 2018 in two large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands were included. AKI was determined by serum creatinine levels increasing > 1.5 times or by an absolute increase of 26.5 mmol/L from baseline value (KDIGO criteria). The primary outcome was incidence of peri-operative AKI development. Secondary outcomes included mid-term renal function (RIFLE criteria), overall survival, and risk factors for AKI development. To determine survival and risk factors for AKI, multivariable Cox regression and logistic regression analyses were performed, accounting for pre-operative renal function and other confounders. Results: In total, 540 patients who underwent infrarenal EVAR with 147 patients who underwent cEVAR also included. The incidence of AKI was 8.7% (n = 47) in infrarenal EVAR patients and 23% (n = 34) in cEVAR patients (fenestrated EVAR 18%; branched EVAR 38%). In contrast to patients without AKI, the renal function of surviving patients with AKI remained significantly reduced at six weeks and did not return to pre-operative values following infrarenal EVAR (three year estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 59.3 ± 23.1 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. pre-operative eGFR 74.0 ± 21.7 mL/min/1.73m2; p = .006) or following cEVAR (three year eGFR 52.0 ± 23.7 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. pre-operative eGFR 65.4 ± 18.6 mL/min/1.73m2; p = .082). After risk adjusted analysis, compared with non-AKI, post-operative AKI development was associated with a higher three year mortality rate following both infrarenal and cEVAR (infrarenal EVAR mortality hazard ratio [HR 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 2.7 [p = .046]; cEVAR mortality HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 – 5.2 [p = .033]). Following multivariable logistic regression, pre-operative chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2; odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.03 – 4.8) and neck diameter (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.2) were significantly associated with AKI following infrarenal EVAR, whereas for cEVAR only contrast volume (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 – 1.2]) was found to be statistically significantly associated with AKI. Conclusion: AKI is a well described complication following infrarenal EVAR and is common after cEVAR. As AKI seems to be associated with permanent renal deterioration and lower survival, efforts to prevent AKI are essential. Future studies are required to assess what factors are associated with a higher risk of developing AKI following cEVAR.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 24 Aug 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was presented as a fast-track presentation at the Annual Meeting of the European Society for Vascular Surgery, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 8 September 2021.