Inclusive entrepreneurship: A call for a shared theoretical conversation about unconventional entrepreneurs

Rene Bakker, Jeffery McMullen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Entrepreneurship has the potential to be an inclusive space comprising many types of conventional as well as unconventional entrepreneurs. In this essay we will argue that when it comes to unconventional entrepreneurs—ranging from refugee entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs with a physical or cognitive disability, to elder entrepreneurs, former convict entrepreneurs, and many others—there are important questions we are not asking because we tend to look at each sub-
group in isolation. Our central message is that looking for shared wisdom across various groups of unconventional entrepreneurs may facilitate a shared
theoretical conversation that aids the transfer of knowledge, prevents silos and the unnecessary reinventing of the wheel, boosts the field's appeal and critical mass, and facilitates a broader exchange of ideas. To facilitate that conversation, we identify who unconventional entrepreneurs are; identify obstacles to a common theoretical conversation and how these obstacles could be overcome; outline a set of common theoretical themes that apply across various groups of unconventional entrepreneurs; and show how further theorizing unconventional entrepreneurs could challenge the community to reach beyond our existing knowledge horizons to develop pioneering entrepreneurship research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106268
JournalJournal of Business Venturing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

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