Ivacaftor has been shown to restore the functionality of the S1251N (also known as c.3752G>A) mutated CFTR, which may cause alterations in both airway and gut physiology and micro-environment, resulting in a change of microbiota in these organs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of ivacaftor on the microbial community composition of both airway and gut in subjects with CF carrying one S1251N mutation, using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing approach. In 16 subjects with CF, repetitive samples from airways and gut were collected just before, and 2 months after, and, for 8 patients, also 9 and 12 months after, start of ivacaftor. 16S rRNA based sequencing identified 344 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) in a total of 139 samples (35 nasopharyngeal, 39 oropharyngeal, 29 sputum, and 36 fecal samples). Ivacaftor significantly enhanced bacterial diversity and overall microbiota composition in the gut (p < 0.01). There were no significant changes in the overall microbial composition and alpha diversity in upper and lower airways of these patients after ivacaftor treatment. Treatment with ivacaftor induces changes in gut microbiota whereas airway microbiota do not change significantly over time.
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