Influence of ethnicity on aesthetic preferences for lip characteristics in Caucasian male and female faces

Joanna Kempa*, Michael Alfertshofer, Deborah Chua, Mona Domehri, Oluwaferanmi Akinsooto, Bogusław Antoszewski, Wojciech Timler, Sebastian Cotofana, Anna Kasielska-Trojan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: In an era where globalization and social media significantly reshape beauty standards, it is imperative to delve into the subjectivity of beauty and attractiveness. The lips, a key element in facial aesthetics, contribute significantly to the perception of attractiveness, and also have a profound impact on an individual's self-esteem. Objective: To analyze the influence of ethnicity on the aesthetic preferences for lip characteristics, among male and female faces. Materials and methods: This study encompassed a sample of 231 study participants (153 women and 78 men) with an average age of 23.2 ± 2.8 years, representing ethnicities such as African, Caucasian, Middle Eastern, and South Asian. Participants were asked to rate a series of images showcasing various lip variants, providing insights into their aesthetic preferences. Results: Demographic analysis revealed gender and ethnic variations in aesthetic preferences for all the investigated lip parameters. Women were 2.42 times more likely than men to prefer no Cupid's indentation on a female model (p = 0.0019). Conclusions: The study underscores the importance of understanding cultural influences on beauty standards and challenges the notion of a universal beauty ideal. The evolving role of social media trends, such as Cupid's bow indentation elimination, raises questions about the dynamic nature of aesthetic preferences among different ethnicities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-189
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2024

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© 2024 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons


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