An increasing number of patients undergo major liver resection following preoperative chemotherapy. Liver regeneration may be impaired in these patients, predisposing them to postoperative liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative chemotherapy on liver regeneration after partial liver resection. Patients planned to receive right hepatectomy either with (group B) or without (group A) prior chemotherapy were identified retrospectively from a prospective multi-institutional database created in the conduct of a national randomized controlled trial (RCT). Prior chemotherapy was neither an inclusion nor an exclusion criterion of the trial. Future remnant liver volume (FRLV) was calculated by measuring total functional liver volume and resection specimen on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Remnant liver volume after 7 days (V (RLV7days)) was measured on scheduled postoperative CT scans. The early regeneration index 7 days after surgery (RI (early)) was calculated as [(V (RLV7days) - FRLV) / FRLV] x 100 %. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range). A total of 72 patients were enrolled: 45 in group A and 27 in group B. For the whole group, the liver remnant showed a 58 % (39 %) increase in volume at day 7 (1) day. The RI (early) was not significantly different between groups A and B, 60 % (36 %) and 50 % (43 %), respectively (p = 0.47). The RI (early) was significantly lower in patients who had undergone more than six cycles of chemotherapy. Preoperative chemotherapy does not seem to have a negative impact on early liver regeneration after partial liver resection.