The bone microenvironment is one of the most hypoxic regions of the human body and in experimental models; hypoxia inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Our previous work revealed that Mucin 1 (MUC1) was dynamically expressed during osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs and upregulated by hypoxia. Upon stimulation, its C-terminus (MUC1-CT) is proteolytically cleaved, translocases to the nucleus, and binds to promoters of target genes. Therefore, we assessed the MUC1-mediated effect of hypoxia on the proteomic composition of human osteoblast-derived extracellular matrices (ECMs) and characterized their osteogenic and angiogenic potentials in the produced ECMs. We generated ECMs from osteogenically differentiated human MSC cultured in vitro under 20% or 2% oxygen with or without GO-201, a MUC1-CT inhibitor. Hypoxia upregulated MUC1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and connective tissue growth factor independent of MUC1 inhibition, whereas GO-201 stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha. Hypoxia and/or MUC1-CT inhibition reduced osteogenic differentiation of human MSC by AMP-activated protein kinase/mTORC1/S6K pathway and dampened their matrix mineralization. Hypoxia modulated ECMs by transforming growth factor-beta/Smad and phosphorylation of NFκB and upregulated COL1A1, COL5A1, and COL5A3. The ECMs of hypoxic osteoblasts reduced MSC proliferation and accelerated their osteogenic differentiation, whereas MUC1-CT-inhibited ECMs counteracted these effects. In addition, ECMs generated under MUC1-CT inhibition reduced the angiogenic potential independent of oxygen concentration. We claim here that MUC1 is critical for hypoxia-mediated changes during osteoblastogenesis, which not only alters the proteomic landscape of the ECM but thereby also modulates its osteogenic and angiogenic potentials.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The European Commission Programme “H2020‐MSCA‐RISE‐2015—Proposal No. 690850—RUBICON, supported this work, for which P.K.J. received a Marie Curie fellowship. We are thankful to professor J‐F Dufour, who provided the support for the immunoblotting experiments. The authors are also thankful to K. Bezstarosti for the mass spectrometry analysis.
The European Commission Programme ?H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015?Proposal No. 690850?RUBICON, supported this work, for which P.K.J. received a Marie Curie fellowship. We are thankful to professor J-F Dufour, who provided the support for the immunoblotting experiments. The authors are also thankful to K. Bezstarosti for the mass spectrometry analysis.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.