Introduction: To investigate the reproducibility of first-trimester fetal organ volume measurements using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and a Virtual Reality system. Methods: Within a population-based prospective cohort study, 3D ultrasound datasets of 25 first-trimester fetuses were collected by three sonographers. We used the V-scope application to perform Virtual Reality volume assessments of the fetal heart, lungs, and kidneys. All measurements were performed by two independent researchers. Results: Intraobserver analyses for volume measurements of the fetal heart, lungs, and kidneys showed intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.86, mean differences ≤8.3%, and coefficients of variation ≤22.8%. Interobserver analyses showed sufficient agreement for right lung volume measurements, but consistent measurement differences between observers for left lung, heart, and kidney volume measurements (p-values <0.05). Conclusion: We observed sufficient intraobserver reproducibility, but overall suboptimal interobserver reproducibility for first-trimester fetal heart, lung, and kidney volume measurements using an innovative Virtual Reality approach. In the current stage, these measurements might be promising for the use in research settings. The reproducibility of the measurements might be further improved by novel post-processing algorithms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Generation R Study was financially supported by the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. Vincent V.W. Jaddoe received a grant from the European Research Council (Consolidator Grant, grant number ERC‐2014‐CoG‐648916). Vincent V. W. Jaddoe and Liesbeth Duijts received funding for projects from European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant number 733206; EUCAN‐Connect, grant number 824989; ATHLETE, grant number 874583). Romy Gaillard received funding from the Dutch Heart Foundation (grant number 2017T013), the Dutch Diabetes Foundation (grant number 2017.81.002), the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (NWO, ZonMW, grant number 543003109 and 529051026), and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the ERA‐NET Cofund action (grant number 727565). Funding information Next
The Generation R Next Study is conducted by the Erasmus University Medical Center in collaboration with the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the City of Rotterdam. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of participants, general practitioners, midwives, hospitals, and pharmacies in Rotterdam. The authors thank Maaike Smit and Jurriaan Schuring for their contribution on the development of a post-processing algorithm.
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.