Objectives The active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), mycophenolic acid, inhibits the activity of the target enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). The aim of this study was to correlate eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IMPDH type II gene to the activity of the IMPDH enzyme to explain between-patient differences in IMPDH activity. Methods and results In a prospective study, we measured IMPDH activity, mycophenolic acid plasma concentrations, and eight polymorphisms of IMPDH type II in de novo kidney transplant recipients, 6 days posttransplantation while on MMF treatment Polymorphisms in the IMPDH type II gene were only observed for the IMPDH type II 3757T > C (rs11706052) single nucleotide polymorphism. Ten of 101 patients (10%) were heterozygous and two of 101 patients (2%) homozygous for IMPDH type II 3757T > C. The allele frequency was 6.9%. The IMPDH activity over 12 h (AUC(act)) was 49% higher for patients with an IMPDH type II 3757C variant [n = 12 vs. n = 68; 336 (95% confidence interval: 216-521) vs. 227 (95% confidence interval: 198-260) h mu mol/s/mol adenosine monophosphate; P=0.04]. The IMPDH activity measured before transplantation (Act(pre-Tx)) was not significantly different between IMPDH type II 3757TT wild-type and variant carrier patients (P=0.99). Conclusion We report that the IMPDH type II 3757T > C polymorphism is associated with an increased IMPDH activity in MMF-treated renal transplant patients. This polymorphism explains 8.0% of the interpatient variability in IMPDH activity. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 19:626-634 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.