Recently, Fourier domain OCT (FD-OCT) has been introduced for clinical use. This approach allows in vivo, high resolution (15 micron) imaging with very fast data acquisition, however, it requires brief flushing of the lumen during imaging. The reproducibility of such fast data acquisition under intracoronary flush application is poorly understood. To assess the inter-study variability of FD-OCT and to compare lumen morphometry to the established invasive imaging method, IVUS. 18 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease scheduled for PCI were included. In each target vessel a FD-OCT pullback (MGH system, light source 1,310 nm, 105 fps, pullback speed 20 mm/s) was acquired during brief (3 s) injection of X-ray contrast (flow 3 ml/s) through the guiding catheter. A second pullback was repeated under the same conditions after re-introduction of the FD OCT catheter into the coronary artery. IVUS and OCT imaging was performed in random order. FD-OCT and IVUS pullback data were analyzed using a recently developed software employing semi automated lumen contour and stent strut detection algorithms. Corresponding ROI were matched based on anatomical landmarks such as side branches and/or stent edges. Inter-study variability is presented as the absolute difference between the two pullbacks. FD-OCT showed remarkably good reproducibility. Inter-study variability in native vessels (cohort A) was very low for mean and minimal luminal area (0.10 +/- A 0.38, 0.19 +/- A 0.57 mm(2), respectively). Likewise inter-study variability was very low in stented coronary segments (cohort B) for mean lumen, mean stent, minimal luminal and minimal stent area (0.06 +/- A 0.08, 0.07 +/- A 0.10, 0.04 +/- A 0.09, 0.04 +/- A 0.10 mm(2), respectively). Comparison to IVUS morphometry revealed no significant differences. The differences between both imaging methods, OCT and IVUS, were very low for mean lumen, mean stent, minimal luminal and minimal stent area (0.10 +/- A 0.45, 0.10 +/- A 0.36, 0.26 +/- A 0.54, 0.05 +/- A 0.47 mm(2), respectively). FD-OCT shows excellent reproducibility and very low inter-study variability in both, native and stented coronary segments. No significant differences in quantitative lumen morphometry were observed between FD-OCT and IVUS. Evaluating these results suggest that FD-OCT is a reliable imaging tool to apply in longitudinal coronary artery disease studies.