Intranasally administered Endocine (TM) formulated 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine induces broad specific antibody responses and confers protection in ferrets

AK Maltais, Koert Stittelaar, EJBV Kroeze, Geert Amerongen, Marcel Dijkshoorn, Gabriel Krestin, J Hinkula, H Arwidsson, A Lindberg, Ab Osterhaus

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Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by an influenza virus. Due to continuous antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, influenza vaccines need to be adjusted before every influenza season. This allows annual vaccination with multivalent seasonal influenza vaccines, recommended especially for high-risk groups. There is a need for a seasonal influenza vaccine that induces broader and longer lasting protection upon easy administration. Endocine (TM) is a lipid-based mucosal adjuvant composed of endogenous lipids found ubiquitously in the human body. Intranasal administration of influenza antigens mixed with this adjuvant has been shown to induce local and systemic immunity as well as protective efficacy against homologous influenza virus challenge in mice. Here we used ferrets, an established animal model for human influenza virus infections, to further investigate the potential of Endocine (TM) as an adjuvant. Intranasal administration of inactivated pandemic H1N1/California/2009 split antigen or whole virus antigen mixed with Endocine (TM) induced high levels of serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) antibody titers that were also cross reactive against distant swine viruses of the same subtype. HI and VN antibody titers were already demonstrated after a single nasal immunization. Upon intratracheal challenge with a homologous challenge virus (influenza virus H1N1/The Netherlands/602/2009) immunized ferrets were fully protected from virus replication in the lungs and largely protected against body weight loss, virus replication in the upper respiratory tract and pathological changes in the respiratory tract. Endocine (TM) formulated vaccines containing split antigen induced higher HI and VN antibody responses and better protection from body weight loss and virus shedding in the upper respiratory tract than the Endocine (TM) formulated vaccine containing whole virus antigen. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)3307-3315
Number of pages9
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-27-01
  • EMC NIHES-03-30-01

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