Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging with Indocyanine Green for Identification of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs), a Feasibility Study

Gijsbert M Kalisvaart, Ruben P J Meijer, Okker D Bijlstra, Hidde A Galema, Wobbe O de Steur, Henk H Hartgrink, Cornelis Verhoef, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Dirk J Grünhagen, Yvonne M Schrage, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Jos A van der Hage

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Optimal intraoperative tumor identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is important for the quality of surgical resections. This study aims to assess the potential of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) to improve intraoperative tumor identification.

METHODS: Ten GIST patients, planned to undergo resection, were included. During surgery, 10 mg of ICG was intravenously administered, and NIRF imaging was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min after the injection. The tumor fluorescence intensity was visually assessed, and tumor-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated for exophytic lesions.

RESULTS: Eleven GIST lesions were imaged. The fluorescence intensity of the tumor was visually synchronous and similar to the background in five lesions. In one lesion, the tumor fluorescence was more intense than in the surrounding tissue. Almost no fluorescence was observed in both the tumor and healthy peritoneal tissue in two patients with GIST lesions adjacent to the liver. In three GISTs without exophytic growth, no fluorescence of the tumor was observed. The median TBRs at 5, 10, and 15 min were 1.0 (0.4-1.2), 1.0 (0.5-1.9), and 0.9 (0.7-1.2), respectively.

CONCLUSION: GISTs typically show similar fluorescence intensity to the surrounding tissue in NIRF imaging after intraoperative ICG administration. Therefore, intraoperatively administered ICG is currently not applicable for adequate tumor identification, and further research should focus on the development of tumor-specific fluorescent tracers for GISTs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1572
JournalCancers
Volume14
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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