Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in the offspring: the Generation R Study

Claudia Snijder, A Kortenkamp, Eric Steegers, Vincent Jaddoe, Bert Hofman, U Hass, Lex Burdorf

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82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recently, over-the-counter mild analgesic use during pregnancy has been suggested to influence the risk of reproductive disorders in the offspring. We examined the influence of maternal exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy on the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in their offspring. Associations between maternal exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and cryptorchidism or hypospadia in the offspring were studied in 3184 women participating in a large population-based prospective birth cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (20022006), the Generation R Study. Cryptorchidism and hypospadia were identified during routine screening assessments performed in child health care centres by trained physicians. The use of mild analgesics was assessed in thr The cumulative prevalence over 30 months of follow up was 2.1 for cryptorchidism and 0.7 for hypospadia. Use of mild analgesics in the second period of pregnancy (1422 weeks) increased the risk of congenital cryptorchidism [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.12; 95 confidence interval (CI) 1.173.83], primarily due to the use of acetaminophen (paracetamol) (adjusted OR 1.89; 95 CI 1.013.51). Among mothers of cryptorchid sons, 33.8 reported (23 of 68) the use of mild analgesics during pregnancy, compared Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics, primarily paracetamol, during the period in pregnancy when male sexual differentiation takes place, increases the risk of cryptorchidism.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1191-1201
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Reproduction
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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