Background/Aims: Anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection may be the result of poor vascular supply from the proximal anastomotic loop. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between colonic microvessel density and anastomotic breakdown. Methodology: Between 2006 and 2009, a consecutive series of 81 patients underwent double-stapled low anterior resection followed by a Colorectal anastomosis. Symptomatic anastomotic leakage occurred in 14 patients (17%). In these patients, microvascular density was determined by image analysis of CD-31-immunostained sections from the proximal resection site. The results were compared with a sample of the remaining 67 patients without anastomotic leakage closely matched for age, gender, ASA-classification, pathological stage and neo-adjuvant treatment. Results: The mean percentage of anti-CD31 stained area, obtained from the proximal resection site was similar between patients with or without anastomotic leakage (4.0% +/- 1.8% versus 4.4% +/- 1.6% respectively, P = 0.53). With respect to neo-adjuvant therapy, no differences in the density of CD31 positive were observed (pre-operative radiotherapy = 4.3% +/- 1.8% versus pre-operative chemoradiotherapy 4.1% +/- 1.6%, P = 0.77). The mean vessel density reached borderline statistical significance in women (5.0% +/- 1.8%) compared to men (3.8% +/- 1.8%) (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Microvessel density quantification with immunohistochemical analysis of CD31 expression of the proximal anastomotic region did not show any correlation with anastomotic leakage in the clinical setting.