ITI consensus report on zygomatic implants: indications, evaluation of surgical techniques and long-term treatment outcomes

B Al-Nawas*, T Aghaloo, C Aparicio, E Bedrossian, L Brecht, M Brennand-Roper, J Chow, R Davo, SC Fan, R Jung, PW Kammerer, VV Kumar, WS Lin, C Malevez, D Morton, J Pijpe, WD Polido, GM Raghoebar, LJ Stumpel, FJ TuminelliJB Verdino, A Vissink, YQ Wu, S Zarrine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)
4 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of the ITI Consensus Workshop on zygomatic implants was to provide Consensus Statements and Clinical Recommendations for the use of zygomatic implants.

Materials and methods
Three systematic reviews and one narrative review were written to address focused questions on (1) the indications for the use of zygomatic implants; (2) the survival rates and complications associated with surgery in zygomatic implant placement; (3) long-term survival rates of zygomatic implants and (4) the biomechanical principles involved when zygoma implants are placed under functional loads. Based on the reviews, three working groups then developed Consensus Statements and Clinical Recommendations. These were discussed in a plenary and finalized in Delphi rounds.

A total of 21 Consensus Statements were developed from the systematic reviews. Additionally, the group developed 17 Clinical Recommendations based on the Consensus Statements and the combined expertise of the participants.

Zygomatic implants are mainly indicated in cases with maxillary bone atrophy or deficiency. Long-term mean zygomatic implant survival was 96.2% [95% CI 93.8; 97.7] over a mean follow-up of 75.4 months (6.3 years) with a follow-up range of 36–141.6 months (3–11.8 years). Immediate loading showed a statistically significant increase in survival over delayed loading. Sinusitis presented with a total prevalence of 14.2% [95% CI 8.8; 22.0] over a mean 65.4 months follow-up, representing the most common complication which may lead to zygomatic implant loss. The international experts suggested clinical recommendations regarding planning, surgery, restoration, outcomes, and the patient’s perspective.
Original languageEnglish
Article number28
Number of pages10
JournalInternational journal of implant dentistry
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. The consensus workshop is financially supported by the ITI.


Dive into the research topics of 'ITI consensus report on zygomatic implants: indications, evaluation of surgical techniques and long-term treatment outcomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this