Police statistics and self-report studies on juvenile offending in the Netherlands show nothing startling compared with other Western countries, although levels are somewhat above the means. Official figures reveal a steady increase from the 1960s, especially for violent offenses, a development in line with the general trend in Europe. Self-reports reveal no dramatic changes since the 1990s, although some studies suggest a recent increase. Much youth offending takes place in company, sometimes in the form of troublesome youth groups. These groups are rarely territorial and are less hierarchical and organized than are gangs in the United States. Offending is often an illegal alternative to get income, respect, and status for marginalized or stigmatized youths. Studies on the etiology of youth crime report risk factors and correlates in line with findings throughout the world. Dutch research on juvenile offending is well developed, but some areas need more attention.
- ESL – Diversen Oud