Key developments in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition

Bruno Seva Pessoa, Nils Lubbe, Koen Verdonk, Anton Roks, Ewout Hoorn, Jan Danser

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73 Citations (Scopus)


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was initially thought to be fairly simple. However, this idea has been challenged following the development of RAAS blockers, including renin inhibitors, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, type 1 angiotensin II (AT(1))-receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. Consequently, new RAAS components and pathways that might contribute to the effectiveness of these drugs and/or their adverse effects have been identified. For example, an increase in renin levels during RAAS blockade might result in harmful effects via stimulation of the prorenin receptor (PRR), and prorenin-the inactive precursor of renin-might gain enzymatic activity on PRR binding. The increase in angiotensin II levels that occurs during AT(1)-receptor blockade might result in beneficial effects via stimulation of type 2 angiotensin II receptors. Moreover, angiotensin 1-7 levels increase during ACE inhibition and AT(1)-receptor blockade, resulting in Mas receptor activation and the induction of cardioprotective and renoprotective effects, including stimulation of tissue repair by stem cells. Finally, a role of angiotensin II in sodium and potassium handling in the distal nephron has been identified. This finding is likely to have important implications for understanding the effects of RAAS inhibition on whole body sodium and potassium balance. Seva Pessoa, B. et al. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 9, 26-36 (2013); published online 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/nrneph.2012.249
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)26-36
Number of pages11
JournalNature Reviews Nephrology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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