Lipid Changes After Induction Therapy in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Effect of Different Drug Classes and Inflammation

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia may be an important modifiable risk factor contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The lipid metabolism is subject to both systemic inflammation and drug therapy; however, it is unclear if this effect is drug-class dependent. Our aim was to assess lipid changes after IBD induction therapy and evaluate associated factors with a particular focus on drug class and disease activity. METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive IBD patients starting systemic therapy (eg, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, anti-TNF-α agents, vedolizumab, ustekinumab, and tofacitinib) were included. Primary outcomes were changes in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides at week 10. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-eight IBD patients (107 women [54%], median age 36 years; interquartile range [IQR], 27-47) were included: 137 Crohn's disease (67%), 61 ulcerative colitis (29%), and 8 IBD-unclassified (4%). Median C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin at baseline were 5.1 mg/L (IQR, 1.6-12.0) and 1040 ug/g (IQR, 383-1800), respectively. Relative increases in total cholesterol, HDL-c, and LDL-c were significant after prednisone (+26%, +31%, +12%) and tofacitinib therapy (+20%, +25%, +26%), respectively. Results remained after adjusting for concomitant corticosteroids, cholestyramine, and PSC diagnosis. Changes in clinical scores were inversely correlated with total cholesterol changes (R -186, P = .014), as was CRP with total cholesterol and LDL-c (R -0.292 and R -0.259, P < .001). No correlation was found with FCP. Lipid changes remained after adjusting for age and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisone and tofacitinib induction therapy significantly increase serum lipid levels, whereas no changes were observed in other drug classes. The observations seem drug-specific inasmuch as adjustment for systemic inflammation did not alter the results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-538
Number of pages8
JournalInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation.

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