Livelihoods in development

Leonardus Johannes de Haan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Today three-quarters of the extreme poor live in middle-income countries. There is a clear link between growth and income inequality in large middle-income countries, making poverty and associated problems increasingly a distribution issue. Livelihood studies – through a holistic perspective on how poor people organise themselves a living – have made a significant contribution in the past two decades to our understanding of processes of inclusion and exclusion and thus of the root causes of poverty and marginalisation. The greatest challenge now is translating livelihood studies into social protection policies that countervail social exclusion


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