Living donor kidney transplantation among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: A model for breaking the hurdles

Sohal Y. Ismail*, Lily Claassens, Annemarie E. Luchtenburg, Joke I. Roodnat, Willij C. Zuidema, Willem Weimar, Jan J.V. Busschbach, Emma K. Massey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Despite living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) being the optimal treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease, we observed a significant inequality in the number of LDKT performed between patients of Dutch versus non-Dutch descent. We conducted a focus group study to explore modifiable hurdles to LDKT. Methods: Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted among 50 end-stage renal patients. Analyses were conducted according to 'grounded theory' using Atlas.ti. Results: We found nearly all patients to be in favor of LDKT (96%). However, multiple factors played a role in considering LDKT. Four potentially modifiable hurdles were derived: (1) inadequate patient education, (2) impeding cognitions and emotions, (3) restrictive social influences, and (4) suboptimal communication. With regard to solutions, we found that our patients were open to home-based group education on renal replacement therapy options (88% in favor). Conclusion: The study highlights the need for sensitivity and awareness of the influence of cultural factors on decision-making when discussing living donation with culturally diverse populations. Practice implications: Since the majority of our patients were open to a tailored group education in their own homes, we see this as an opportunity to address factors that influence equality in access to LDKT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-124
Number of pages7
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study is part of research funded by the Dutch Kidney Foundation . The authors would like to thank the experts who advised us in the planning phase.

Research programs

  • EMC MM-04-39-05
  • EMC NIHES-04-58-01


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