Long Stent Implantation on the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery at a Follow-Up of More Than Five Years

Alessandro Sticchi, Concetta Tatali, Massimo Ferraro, Arif A. Khokhar, Alessandra Scoccia, Alberto Cereda*, Marco Toselli, Francesco Gallo, Alessandra Laricchia, Antonio Mangieri, Francesco Grigioni, Gian Paolo Ussia, Francesco Giannini, Antonio Colombo

*Corresponding author for this work

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Stent implantation represents the standard of care in coronary intervention. While a short stent implanted on a focal lesion located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD) seems a reasonable alternative to an internal mammary implant, the same for long stents is still debated. 


We reported the long-term data of 531 consecutive patients who underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) with long stents in two highly specialized centres. The main inclusion criteria were the implantation of stents longer than 30 mm on the LAD and a minimum follow-up (FU) of five years. The primary endpoint was mortality, and the secondary endpoints were any myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel and lesion revascularization (TVR and TLR, respectively), and stent thrombosis (ST) observed as definite, probable, or possible. 


In this selected population with characteristics of complex PCI (99.1%), the long-term follow-up (mean 92.18 ± 35.5 months) estimates of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and any myocardial infarction were 18.3%, 10.5%, and 9.3%, respectively. Both all-cause and cardiovascular deaths are significantly associated with three-vessel disease (HR 6.8; confidence of interval (CI) 95% 3.844–11.934; p < 0.001, and HR 4.7; CI 95% 2.265–9.835; p < 0.001, respectively). Target lesion (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR) are associated with the presence of three-lesion disease on the LAD (HR 3.4; CI 95% 1.984–5.781; p < 0.001; HR 3.9 CI 95% 2.323–6.442; p < 0.001, respectively). Re-PCI for any cause occurred in 31.5% of patients and shows an increased risk for three-lesion stenting (HR 4.3; CI 95% 2.873–6.376; p < 0.001) and the treatment of bifurcation with two stents (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.051–2.414; p = 0.028). Stent thrombosis rate at the 5-year FU was 4.4% (1.3% definite; 0.9% probable; 2.1% possible), including a 1.7% rate of very-late thrombosis. The stent length superior to 40 mm was not associated with poor outcomes (all-cause death p = 0.349; cardiovascular death p = 0.855; MI p = 0.691; re-PCI p = 0.234; TLR p = 0.805; TVR p = 0.087; ST p = 0.189). 


At an FU of longer than five years, patients treated with stents longer than 30 mm in their LAD showed acceptable procedural results but poor outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number210
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

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