Background: Reconstructive surgery is performed in patients with cloacal malformations to achieve anorectal, urological, and gynecological function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of cloacal malformation repair as reported in literature. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, EMbase, and Web-of-Science. Records were assessed for the reporting of functional outcomes, which was divided into anorectal, urological, or gynecological function. Studies were used in qualitative (Rangel score) and quantitative syntheses. Results: Twelve publications were eligible for inclusion. Voluntary bowel movements were reported in 108 of 188 (57%), soiling in 146 of 205 (71%), and constipation in 31 of 61 patients (51%). Spontaneous voiding was reported for 138 of 299 patients (46%). 141 of 332 patients (42%) used intermittent catheterization, and 53 of 237 patients (22%) had a urinary diversion. Normal menstruations were reported for 25 of 71 patients (35%). Centers with limited experience reported similar outcome compared to centers with more experience (>= 1 patients/year). Conclusion: In this review we present functional outcome of the largest pooled cohort of patients with cloacal malformations as reported from 1993 to 2012. Functional disturbances are frequently encountered in anorectal, urological, as well as gynecological systems. Reporting of functional outcome in these patients should improve to increase knowledge about long-term results in patients with this rare malformation and to reach higher study quality. Especially, sacral and spinal anomalies should always be reported given their impact on functional outcome. Specialized care centers may be of great importance for patients with rare and complex conditions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.