Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the intraindividual performance of 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) and 11 C-acetate (ACE) PET studies for restaging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa), to correlate PET findings with long-term clinical and imaging follow-up, and to evaluate the impact of PET results on patient management. Methods Thirty-three PCa patients relapsing after radical prostatectomy (n = 10, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤3 ng/mL), primary radiotherapy (n = 8, prostate-specific antigen ≤5 ng/mL), or radical prostatectomy + salvage radiotherapy (n = 15) underwent ACE and FCH PET-CT (n = 29) or PET-MRI (n = 4) studies in a randomized sequence 0 to 21 days apart. Results The detection rate for ACE was 66% and for FCH was 60%. Results were concordant in 79% of the cases (26/33) and discordant in 21% (retroperitoneal, n = 5; pararectal, n = 1; and external iliac nodes, n = 1). After a median FU of 41 months (n = 32, 1 patient lost to FU), the site of relapse was correctly identified by ACE and FCH in 53% (17/32) and 47% (15/32) of the patients, respectively (2 M1a patients ACE+/FCH-), whereas in 6 of 32 patients the relapse was not localized. Treatment approach was changed in 11 (34.4%) of 32 patients and 9 (28%) of 32 patients restaged with ACE and FCH PET, respectively. Conclusions In early recurrent PCa, ACE and FCH showed minor discrepancies, limited to nodal staging and mainly in the retroperitoneal area, with true positivity of PET findings confirmed in half of the cases during FU. Treatment approach turned out to be influenced by ACE or FCH PET studies in one third of the patients.
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