Longitudinal network re-organization across learning and development

Ethan M. McCormick*, Sabine Peters, Eveline A. Crone, Eva H. Telzer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While it is well understood that the brain experiences changes across short-term experience/learning and long-term development, it is unclear how these two mechanisms interact to produce developmental outcomes. Here we test an interactive model of learning and development where certain learning-related changes are constrained by developmental changes in the brain against an alternative development-as-practice model where outcomes are determined primarily by the accumulation of experience regardless of age. Participants (8–29 years) participated in a three-wave, accelerated longitudinal study during which they completed a feedback learning task during an fMRI scan. Adopting a novel longitudinal modeling approach, we probed the unique and moderated effects of learning, experience, and development simultaneously on behavioral performance and network modularity during the task. We found nonlinear patterns of development for both behavior and brain, and that greater experience supported increased learning and network modularity relative to naïve subjects. We also found changing brain-behavior relationships across adolescent development, where heightened network modularity predicted improved learning, but only following the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. These results present compelling support for an interactive view of experience and development, where changes in the brain impact behavior in context-specific fashion based on developmental goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117784
JournalNeuroImage
Volume229
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Author Contributions: S.P. and E.A.C. designed research, and performed research; E.M.M. analyzed data; E.M.M. S.P. E.A.C. & E.H.T. wrote the paper. This research was funded by a starting grant of the European Research Council (ERC-2010-StG-263234 awarded to E.A.C.) and a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VICI 453?14?001 awarded to E.A.C.). We would like to thank Laura van der Aar, Sibel Altikula?, Neeltje Blankenstein, Barbara Braams, Suzanne van de Groep, Juliette Cass?, Dianne van der Heide, Jorien van Hoorn, C?dric Koolschijn, Babette Langeveld, Kyra Lubbers, Batsheva Mannheim, Mara van der Meulen, Rosa Meuwese, Sandy Overgaauw, Jiska Peper, Elisabeth Schreuders, Merel Schrijver, Jochem Spaans, Marije Stolte, Erik de Water, and Bianca Westhoff for their help with data collection. Finally we would like to thank all participants and their parents for their collaboration. E.M.M. was supported in this research by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01DA039923, R01 EB022904 awarded to E.H.T.) and generous funds from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Processed behavioral and fMRI data, as well as all code used in the analyses supporting the primary findings of this study are available at Open Science Framework; projecthttps://osf.io/62gwz/. Investigators interested in obtaining raw behavioral and fMRI data should contact E.A.C.

Funding Information:
This research was funded by a starting grant of the European Research Council (ERC-2010-StG-263234 awarded to E.A.C.) and a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VICI 453–14–001 awarded to E.A.C.). We would like to thank Laura van der Aar, Sibel Altikulaç, Neeltje Blankenstein, Barbara Braams, Suzanne van de Groep, Juliette Cassé, Dianne van der Heide, Jorien van Hoorn, Cédric Koolschijn, Babette Langeveld, Kyra Lubbers, Batsheva Mannheim, Mara van der Meulen, Rosa Meuwese, Sandy Overgaauw, Jiska Peper, Elisabeth Schreuders, Merel Schrijver, Jochem Spaans, Marije Stolte, Erik de Water, and Bianca Westhoff for their help with data collection.. Finally we would like to thank all participants and their parents for their collaboration.

Funding Information:
E.M.M. was supported in this research by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01DA039923, R01 EB022904 awarded to E.H.T.) and generous funds from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)

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