Objective: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether an individual heterozygous FH patient will develop CVD depends on other genetic-and environmental risk factors as well. LDL receptor-related protein with 11 ligand binding repeat (LR11) and its soluble form (sLR11) play a role in the progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the involvement of LR11 and sLR11 in CVD development in FH patients and in LDLR deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice. Approach and results: In statin-treated asymptomatic male heterozygous FH subjects, plasma sLR11 levels correlated with carotid intima-media thickness. Increased plasma sLR11 levels were found in Ldlr(-/-) and also in wild-type mice exclusively after high-fat feeding. Hepatic LR11 mRNA levels, however, were higher in chow-fed Ldlr(-/-) in comparison with wild-type mice and were further increased after a high fat diet. Similar results were obtained with Apoe(-/-) mice, but not with wild-type mice. LR11 mRNA and protein levels and release of sLR11 from cultured HepG2 and aortic smooth muscle cells were upregulated by postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL). Overexpression of human LR11 in CHO cells resulted in increased binding and association of 12I-labeled TGRL, but not of 12I-labeled LDL. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest an involvement of LR11 in mediating the harmful effects of a high-fat diet on CVD progression. Elevated sLR11 levels may increase the CVD risk especially in subjects with delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich remnants, such as in FH patients. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.