Rationale: Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balanced interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are derived from monocyte/macrophage lineage. Major vault protein (MVP) is known to promote apoptosis and prevent metabolic diseases in macrophage. However, whether MVP is involved in osteoclastogenesis is unknown. Here, we identified an important function of MVP as a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis and its therapeutic potential in preventing bone loss. Methods: Expression of MVP in osteoclasts was investigated in human tumor tissues with immunohistochemical staining. Next, we generated total body (Mvp-/- ) and monocyte-specific (Mvpf/fLyz2-Cre) MVP gene knockout mice to observe bone phenotype and osteoclastogenesis using micro-CT and bone histomorphometry. Moreover, we examined the effects of MVP on osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, NFATc1 activation and calcium oscillations in vitro. Finally, we explored the clinical potential of targeting MVP in two osteoporosis mouse models and used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene to overexpress MVP locally in mice. Results: We found that Mvp-/- and Mvpf/fLyz2-Cre mice both exhibited osteoporosis-like phenotypes. MVP-deficiency also enhanced calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling and promoted NFATc1 activity, which led to enhanced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Calcineurin inhibition using the small molecule inhibitor FK506 corrected the enhanced osteoclastogenesis in Mvpf/fLyz2-Cre group. Additionally, MVP reexpression in Mvpf/fLyz2-Cre group rescued calcineurin expression. MVP overexpression in wild-type mice prevented pathologic bone loss in mouse models of ovariectomized (OVX) and calvaria-adjacent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected. Conclusions: Our data suggested that MVP negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption via inhibition of calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling. In osteoclast-related bone diseases such as osteoporosis, manipulation of MVP activity may be an attractive therapeutic target.