Background and Objectives: Enabling universal access to safe blood components should be a key component of every country's national healthcare strategy. This study aimed to assess the current status of infrastructure and resources of blood transfusion services (BTS) in low- and middle-income countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to gather information on blood donations, components, redistribution, testing resources and quality management systems (QMSs). The survey was distributed to the International Society of Blood Transfusion members between October 2021 and November 2021. Results: A total of 54 respondents from 20 countries responded to the survey. This included hospital-based BTS/blood centres (46%), national blood centres (11%)and national and regional blood services (11%). Voluntary non-remunerated, replacement and paid donors accounted for 94.2%, 84.6% and 21.1% of donations, respectively. Apheresis donation was available in 59.6% of institutions. National/regional criteria for redistribution of blood components were reported by 75.9% of respondents. Blood components incurred payment charges in 81.5% of respondents' institutions, and payments were borne by patients in 50% of them. Testing methods, such as manual (83%), semi-automated (68%) or fully automated (36.2%), were used either alone or in combination. QMSs were reported in 17 institutions, while accreditation and haemovigilance were reported in 12 and 8 countries, respectively. Conclusion: QMS was implemented in most of the countries despite the common use of paid donations and the lack of advanced testing. Efforts to overcome persistent challenges and wider implementation of patient blood management programmes are required.
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