Mapping global prevalence of depression among postpartum women

Ziyi Wang, Jiaye Liu, Huan Shuai, Zhongxiang Cai, Xia Fu, Yang Liu, Xiong Xiao, Wenhao Zhang, Elise Krabbendam, Shio Liu, Zhongchun Liu*, Zhihui Li*, Bing Xiang Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common psychological condition following childbirth, and may have a detrimental effect on the social and cognitive health of spouses, infants, and children. The aim of this study was to complete a comprehensive overview of the current literature on the global epidemiology of PPD. A total of 565 studies from 80 different countries or regions were included in the final analysis. Postpartum depression was found in 17.22% (95% CI 16.00–18.51) of the world’s population. Meta-regression analysis showed that study size, country or region development, and country or region income were the causes of heterogeneity. Multivariable meta-regression analysis found that study size and country or area development were the most important predictors. Varied prevalence rates were noted in geographic regions with the highest rate found in Southern Africa (39.96%). Of interested was a significantly lower rate of PPD in developed countries or high-income countries or areas. Furthermore, the findings showed that there was a substantial difference in rates of PPD when marital status, educational level, social support, spouse care, violence, gestational age, breast feeding, child mortality, pregnancy plan, financial difficulties, partnership, life stress, smoking, alcohol intake, and living conditions were considered in the pooled estimates. Our results indicated that one out of every five women experiences PPD which is linked to income and geographic development. It is triggered by a variety of causes that necessitate the attention and committed intervention of primary care providers, clinicians, health authorities, and the general population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number543
JournalTranslational Psychiatry
Issue number1
Early online date20 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


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