Purpose: Maternal hyperglycemia is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Maternal dietary glycemic index and load influence postprandial glucose concentrations. We examined the associations of maternal early pregnancy dietary glycemic index and load with fetal growth and risks of adverse birth outcomes. Methods: In a population-based cohort study of 3471 pregnant Dutch women, we assessed dietary glycemic index and load using a food frequency questionnaire at median 13.4 (95% range 10.6; 21.2) weeks gestation. We measured fetal growth in mid- and late-pregnancy by ultrasound and obtained birth outcomes from medical records. Results: Mean maternal early pregnancy dietary glycemic index and load were 57.7 (SD 3.3, 95% range 52.8; 63.5) and 155 (SD 47, 95% range 87; 243), respectively. Maternal early pregnancy dietary glycemic index was not associated with fetal growth parameters. A higher maternal early pregnancy dietary glycemic load was associated with a higher fetal abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight in late-pregnancy (p values < 0.05), but not with mid-pregnancy or birth growth characteristics. A higher maternal early pregnancy dietary glycemic index was associated with a lower risk of a large-for-gestational-age infant (p value < 0.05). Maternal early pregnancy glycemic index and load were not associated with other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion: Among pregnant women without an impaired glucose metabolism, a higher early pregnancy dietary glycemic load was associated with higher late-pregnancy fetal abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight. No consistent associations of maternal dietary glycemic index and load with growth parameters in mid-pregnancy and at birth were present. A higher glycemic index was associated with a lower risk of a large-for-gestational-age infant.
Bibliographical noteFunding The Generation R Study is fnancially supported by the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. Romy Gaillard received funding from the Dutch Heart Foundation (grant number 2017T013), the Dutch Diabetes Foundation
(grant number 2017.81.002), and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (NWO, ZonMW, grant number 543003109).
Publisher Copyright: © 2020, The Author(s).