Maternal First-Trimester Cow-Milk Intake Is Positively Associated with Childhood General and Abdominal Visceral Fat Mass and Lean Mass but Not with Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors at the Age of 10 Years

Ellis Voerman, Romy Gaillard, Madelon L. Geurtsen, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Higher maternal cow-milk intake during pregnancy is associated with higher fetal growth measures and higher birth weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the associations of maternal milk intake during pregnancy with body fat measures and cardiometabolic risk factors at the age of 10 y. Methods: In a population-based cohort of Dutch mothers and their children (n = 2466) followed from early pregnancy onwards, we assessed maternal first-trimester milk intake (milk and milk drinks) by food-frequency questionnaire. Maternal milk intake was categorized into 0-0.9, 1-1.9, 2-2.9, 3-3.9, 4-4.9, and ≥5 glasses/d, with 1 glass equivalent to 150 mL milk. For children at the age of 10 y, we calculated BMI and obtained detailed measures of body and organ fat by DXA and MRI. We also measured blood pressure and lipid, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models. Results: Compared with children whose mothers consumed 0-0.9 glass of milk/d during their pregnancy, those whose mothers consumed ≥5 glasses of milk/d had a 0.29 SD (95% CI: 0.10, 0.48) higher BMI, 0.27 SD (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47) higher fat mass, 0.26 SD (95% CI: 0.07, 0.46) higher lean mass, 0.30 SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.50) higher android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio and 0.38 SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.67) higher abdominal visceral fat mass. After correction for multiple comparisons, groups of maternal milk intake were not associated with pericardial fat mass index, liver fat fraction, blood pressure, or lipid, insulin, or glucose concentrations (P values >0.0125). Conclusions: Our results suggest that maternal first-trimester milk intake is positively associated with childhood general and abdominal visceral fat mass and lean mass, but not with other cardiometabolic risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1965-1975
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume151
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

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