Background: The evidence from individual studies to support the maturational pattern of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in healthy term-born neonates is inconclusive. We performed an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of reported measured GFR (mGFR) data aimed to establish neonatal GFR reference values. Furthermore, we aimed to optimise neonatal creatinine-based GFR estimations. Methods: We identified studies reporting mGFR measured by exogenous markers or creatinine clearance (CrCL) in healthy term-born neonates. The relationship between postnatal age and clearance was investigated using cubic splines with generalized additive linear mixed models. From our reference values, we estimated an updated coefficient for the Schwartz equation (eGFR(ml/min/1.73m2)=(k*height (cm))/serum creatinine(mg/dl)). Results: Forty-eight out of 1521 screened articles reported mGFR in healthy term-born neonates, and 978 mGFR values from 881 neonates were analysed. IPD were available for 367 neonates and the other 514 neonates were represented by 41 aggregated data points as means/medians per group. GFR doubled in the first five days after birth from 19.6 (95%CI 14.7;24.6) ml/min/1.73m2 to 40.6 (95%CI 36.7;44.5) ml/min/1.73m2, then more gradually increased to 59.4 (95%CI 45.9;72.9) ml/min/1.73m2 by four weeks of age. A coefficient of 0.31 to estimate GFR best fitted the data. Conclusions: These reference values for healthy term-born neonates show a biphasic increase in GFR with the largest increase between days 1 and 5. Together with the re-examined Schwartz equation, this can help identify altered GFR in term-born neonates. To enable widespread implementation of our proposed eGFR equation, validation in a large cohort of neonates is required.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding The research was funded by the Radboud university medical center.
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