Microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial disease are independent predictors of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, especially among hypertensive subjects: Five-year follow-up of the hoorn study

Agnes Jager, Piet J. Kostense, Henricus G. Ruhé, Robert J. Heine, Giel Nijpels, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Lex M. Bouter, Coen D.A. Stehouwer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

348 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It has been proposed that MA reflects generalized atherosclerosis and may thus predict mortality. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the associations between, on the one hand, MA and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a generally accepted marker of generalized atherosclerosis, and, on the other hand, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in an age-, sex-, and glucose tolerance-stratified sample (n=631) of a population-based cohort aged 50 to 75 years followed prospectively for 5 years. At baseline, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in an overnight spot urine sample; MA was defined as ACR >2.0 mg/mmol. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial pressure index below 0.90 and/or a history of a peripheral arterial bypass or amputation. After 5 years of follow-up, 58 subjects had died (24 of cardiovascular causes). Both MA and PAD were associated with a 4-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, levels of total and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride, body mass index, smoking habits, and preexistent ischemic heart disease, the relative risks (RR) (95% confidence intervals) were 3.2 (1.3 to 8.1) for MA and 2.4 (0.9 to 6.1) for PAD. When both MA and PAD were included in the multivariate analysis, the RRs were 2.9 (1.1 to 7.3) for MA and 2.0 (0.7 to 5.7) for PAD. MA and PAD were both associated with an about 2-fold increase in all-cause mortality. The RRs of all-cause mortality associated with MA and PAD were about 4 times higher among hypertensive than among normotensive subjects. We conclude that both MA and PAD are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. MA and PAD are mutually independent risk indicators. The associations of MA and PAD with all-cause mortality are somewhat weaker. They are more pronounced in the presence of hypertension than in its absence. These data suggest that MA affects mortality risk through a mechanism different from generalized atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-624
Number of pages8
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1999
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by a Clinical Research Fellowship from the Diabetes Fonds Nederland and the Netherlands Organization for
Scientific Research (NWO). We are indebted to Prof J. S. Yudkin for critically reading our manuscript and for his thoughtful comments

© 1999 American Heart Association, Inc.

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