Microbiome as a predictor of implantation

Xu Shan Gao*, Joop Laven, Yvonne Louwers, Andries Budding, Sam Schoenmakers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
325 Downloads (Pure)


Purpose of reviewReview the latest research on the female urogenital microbiome as a predictor of successful implantation.Recent findingsLactobacillus crispatus seems to be beneficial species in a healthy female genital tract, although the presence of anaerobic bacteria and their impact has yet to be determined. The vaginal microbiome is associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome in terms of successful implantation and pregnancy. Approaches restoring a dysbiotic vaginal microbiome seem promising. It is questionable if a unique endometrial microbiome exists, given the low bacterial biomass, the invasiveness of endometrial sampling, and its associated high contamination risk. Future studies should focus on the whole microbiome using proteomics and metabolomics, as well as the virome to get a more holistic understanding of its role in reproduction.SummaryThe vaginal and endometrial compartments are being studied to determine a healthy and unhealthy microbiome composition. Defining a healthy composition could provide insight into physiological processes related to the success of embryo implantation. The vaginal microbiome is easily accessible and its composition can be reliably assessed and can be associated with ART outcome. The existence of an endometrial or uterine microbiome is still debated, due to the combination of low biomass and unavoidable high risk of contamination during sampling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-132
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
X.G., Y.L., and S.S. have nothing to declare. J.L. reports unrestricted research grants from Ferring, the Dutch Heart Association, ZonMw. He also received consultancy fees from Ferring, Gedeon Richter, and Titus Healthcare, outside the submitted work. A.B. holds a position at ArtPred BV, a company investigating and selling assays to predict the success rate of ART procedures based on vaginal microbiota composition.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


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